中英文对照双语连载

Academic Writing tips by Dartmouth College

常春藤院校达特茅斯学院

学术写作技巧指导

2013516Dartmouth Writing Program

总目录(以下10大主题将分别在之后的各期新闻简报中连载):

  • What is an academic paper?               什么是学术写作?

  • Coming up withyour topic                构思

  • Researching your topic                   与主题相关的调查研究

  • Developing your thesis                   发展成文

  • Writing: considering structure& organization

    写作:考虑结构和组织

  • Revision: cultivating a criticaleye      修改:培养批判性思维

  • Logic and argument                       逻辑和论证

  • Attending to grammar                     关注语法

  • Attending to style                       关注写作风格

  • Students' Advice for Students            学生对学生的建议

 

Coming up with your topic构思

  • Reading to Write                    为写作而阅读(本期连载内容)

  • Using Critical Theory

    使用批判的理论      

  • Informal Strategies for Invention        寻找灵感的非正式策略

  • Formal Strategies for Invention          寻找灵感的正式策略             

  • Focusing Your Ideal                       集中你的想法   

  • Broadening Your Topic

    扩展你的观点

  • Narrowing Your Topic                     缩小你的观点


 

READINGTO WRITE

为写作而阅读

 

People read differently for different purposes. When youread in order to cram for a quiz, you might scan only the first line of everyparagraph of a text. When you read for pleasure, you might permit yourself tolinger for a long while over a particular phrase or image that you findappealing. It shouldn't come as a surprise, then, that when you read in orderto write a paper, you must adopt certain strategies if you expect your effortsto be fruitful and efficient.

人们为了不同目的不一样地读书。当你读书是为了一场测试而死记硬背,你可能只记住了一篇文章中每个段落的第一句。如果你为了放松娱乐去读书,你就会让自己在一段吸引人的词句或图像上琢磨很长一段时间。不出意外,当你为了写一篇论文去阅读,如果你想要自己的努力成果是丰富有用的,你就必须采取一些策略。

 

Read Actively

主动阅读

When you know that you are going to write a paper about abook or article, prepare yourself to read actively. Don't read a text simply toget its information. This method of reading is passive: you "receive"the text as you read, and you hold off making any intellectual response to thetext until after you've finished reading it.

当你知道自己要写关于一本书或一篇文章的论文时,让自己积极地去阅读。不要仅仅只是为了从中获取信息。这样的阅读方法是被动的:你边阅读边接收文章内容,直到你已经完全读完了文章后,你才开始做出知识反应。

This way of reading doesn't get you very far. Whilereading passively might enable you to understand the gist of the argument,you'll probably forget the many twists and turns that the argument took on theway to making its point. Can you, without a struggle, recall the structure ofthe argument? Its use of language? Its wealth details?

这种阅读方式不会对你帮助很大。被动地阅读也许能让你理解论点的要旨,但你可能会忘记很多论述过程中的转折。你能毫不费力地复述出论证的结构吗?它对语言的运用?它丰富的细节?

Probably not. And so you have to read the book again,this time making notes to yourself about the argument and its development.While a second - or third or fourth - reading of a text is always a good idea,it's certainly better to read well the first time through. You can then ensurethat your subsequent readings will take you deeper and farther than you mightotherwise have gone.

很大可能是做不到的。所以你必须重读一遍书本,这次在论点及其如何发展论证上,你应该做好笔记。虽然重读两次,三次或者四次文章通常是很好的,但能在第一次就读好它就更好了。你就可以保证接下来的阅读会让你更深远地深入理解文章,而那些内容是之前你可能会遗漏的。

But how do you become an active reader?

但要怎么成为一个主动的读者呢?

 

Break the Linear Tradition

突破传统

To become an active reader, you haveto rid yourself of the idea that reading is the first of three steps in alinear writing process. Maybe you believe that the most efficient way to writea paper is to read first, think later, and write last of all. In talking withstudents, we've found that they rarely write as they read. Sometimes, theydon't even think as they read. When you read, do you stop to ask questions? Doyou challenge the writer? Do you search your soul for what you really believeabout the topic at hand? And once you've begun writing, do you ever go back tothe text? Maybe you go back to find a piece of evidence that will support yourclaims, but do you ever do the kind of re-reading that will force you toreconsider the text and your own position on it? If you answered "no"to most or all of these questions, then perhaps you are reading passively. Yourthinking will not go as far as it might, and your papers will sufferaccordingly.

要成为一个主动的读者,你必须摆脱一个想法,不要认为阅读是在有序的写作过程中三个步骤中的第一个。也许你认为最有效的方式就是先阅读,然后再思考,最后才是写作。和学生的交谈中,我们发现他们很少在阅读的时候写。有时候他们在阅读时甚至都不怎么思考。当你阅读的时候,你会停下来提出问题吗?你会反驳作者吗?你会深入思考寻找你真正相信的是什么吗?还有一旦你开始写作,你是否会回过头去看文章?也许你会回去找一个事实来支持自己的论点,但你是否会重新做一种阅读,事实促使你重新思考文章内容还有自己立场的阅读?如果你对于大部分或者全部的问题都是回答,那么你很可能是很被动地在阅读。你也许思考得不够多,你的文章也会相对地受到影响。

 

Trust Your Gut

相信你的勇气

Once you understand that you ought to be thinkingactively as you read, you'll begin to pay more attention to your reactions tothe text. It's not a bad idea to keep track of how a text makes you feel whileyou are reading it. If you find yourself getting angry or growing bored, askyourself why. Is the argument coming apart? Are there too many details? Notenough? Is the writer a misogynist? bigot? liberal? conservative? jerk? Payattention to your own responses. They might be the seeds for your paper.

一旦你了解了阅读时应该主动积极地思考,你就会开始注意自己对文章内容做出的反应。当你阅读的时候,不断地思考文章给你什么样的感觉是不错的。如果你感到自己越来越生气或觉得无聊,问问自己为什么。是因为论证离题了?有太多细节?细节太少?作者是讨厌女人的人?偏执的人?崇尚自由主义的?保守的?性情古怪?注意你自己的感受,这可能是你文章的来源。

It's possible, too, that you'll find yourself"wowed" by a text. Or that some particular detail, which the authortouches on in passing, seems to you to hold the key to a problem that you'vebeen thinking about for a long time. Again, pay attention to yourself as youread. Monitor your reactions. Interrogate them. They might lead you to an interestingpaper topic.

有篇文章让你很惊喜也是有可能的。或者是某些特定的细节,可能是作者顺便提起的,这些细节成为了解决一个问题的关键,而这个问题你已经思考了很长的一段时间。同样的,注意自己阅读时的感受。监控记录自己的反应。审视它们。它们也许会让你想到一个有趣的话题。

 

Enter the Conversation

进行对话

When a writer writes a book she is, in a sense,inviting you into an ongoing conversation. She is taking a position in thegreat human debate, and she is asking you to take yours. When you write a paperin college, you are entering this conversation.

作者在写一本书的时候,在某种程度上,她其实是在邀请你进行一次对话。她在关于人类的辩论上采取了一个立场,也邀请你有自己的立场。当你在大学里写一篇论文时,你也是在进行这样的对话。

Understand that scholarship is the written exchangeof a particular community - in this case, the academic community. As a student,you have joined this community, attending it like you might attend a cocktailparty that has the peculiar quality of going on for four years. In essence,what is expected of you as a student isn't far different from what is expectedfrom you as a party-goer. As is true of any party, there are rules that governyour behavior - rules that tell you what you might and might not say, and howyou might or might not say it. But the basic rules of conversation are the samein the academy as they are at the cocktail party: you must listen well, youmust think on your feet, and you must contribute to the conversation in a waythat is relevant, thoughtful, and interesting.

请你明白学识在学术圈中是以书面的形式交流。作为一个学生,你已经加入了这样的圈子,这就像你参与鸡尾酒聚会一样,比较特殊的是,这个圈子你要参与四年。实际上,作为一个学生,对你的要求并不会和你作为一个经常聚会的人有很大的区别。每个聚会都有很多规则去规范你的行为,告诉你什么能说或者不能说,还有你要怎么说。学术界基本的对话规则和在鸡尾酒聚会里的都是一样的:你要认真听,以自己的角度思考,以相关的值得深思的而且有趣的方式加入对话。

In order to enter the conversation fully as awriter, you must first enter the conversation fully as a reader. Pay attentionto the text. Take note of how you feel about what the author is saying. Thenconsider the argument that she is presenting to you. Are there gaps in herargument? Do you want to challenge these gaps? Do you want to fill them in? Doyou want to acknowledge the validity of her argument and then apply it tothings that she hasn't seemed to consider?

为了以作者的身份更好的投入到对话中,你首先要以读者的身份投入其中。关注文章的内容,把你对于作者所说东西的感受写下来。然后思考她提出的论点。思考她的论证中有漏洞吗?你想要反驳这些漏洞吗?你想要补充它们?你想要知道她论证的有效性,然后运用到她没考虑到的事中去吗?

All of these questions move you beyondyour own reactions to a consideration of the argument. Your conversation withthe writer has begun.

这些问题让你的反应变为对论据的思考。你与作者的对话就开始了。

 

Use the Margins

使用空白处

Maybe the best practical advice we can give youabout reading more actively is to make use of the margins. An unmarked book isan unread book. Marking a text as you read it ensures that you are readingactively. Even the simple act of underlining a passage requires you to askyourself what is most important in a text. The act of weighing importance isone way of breaking the habit of passive reading.

对于怎么更主动地阅读,我们能给你的最实用的建议应该就是利用空白处。一本没有任何标记的书相当于没读过的书。阅读的时候在文章中列出标志,这可以保证你是在主动地阅读的。即使是在句子下划线这样一个最简单的动作,都能让你提问自己,文章中什么是最重要的。衡量什么是重点,这个行为是摆脱被动阅读习惯的一种方法。

But you can do much more in the margins than simplymake note of important passages. You can ask questions in the margins. You candraw arrows, establishing obscure connections in the text. You can notepatterns of imagery or language as you see them. You can locate contradictions.You can get feisty, even, and call the author out for a debate.

但是你可以在空白处做更多的事,而不仅仅只是标记出重要的段落。你可以在空白处提出问题,可以画出箭号,给文章某些部分建立隐藏的联系。你可以标记一些你看到的意象或者语言形式,可以记下矛盾的地方。这样你会变得活跃,甚至可以和作者进行一场辩论。

You also might find that you can demystify a text bywriting in it. After all, reading Socrates or Freud or Marx or Einstein mightleave you feeling unsettled, intimidated even. These minds seem so original, soperfect in their way, that it seems impossible at first that your professor isasking you to make some comment on them. Even when you read unknown writers youmight feel intimidated. After all, they are published. Their work is deemedgood enough to find its way into print. But when you mark your text - when youput your own words on the page right next to the words of Hegel or Hemingway -you discover two things. First is that there is "room" for you on thepage. Neither Hegel nor Hemingway has the last word on any subject. Second, youcome to see that your process is not so much different from theirs. They readtexts and they responded to them by writing. Now you are, too.

你也许会发现,通过写作,你可以阐明一篇文章。但是,阅读苏格拉底,弗洛伊德,马克思或者爱因斯坦的著作,可能会让你感到困惑甚至恐惧。他们的思想都是很独特,很完美的,所以当教授让你对他们提意见的时候,你可能觉得这是做不到的事。甚至,当你读到的文章是不认识的作者写的,你也可能感到恐惧。毕竟,它们都被出版了。他们的作品都是有好的地方,值得去出版的。但当你在文章中做笔记,就在黑格尔或海明威的文字旁边写下你自己的文字时,你会发现两件事。第一件事是,那里有让你能写东西的空间,因为无论是海格尔或是海明威都无法对所有学科做出结论。第二,你会发现你的过程和他们的并不会区别太大。他们阅读文章,然后通过写作来提出对文章的看法,现在你也是。

 

Moving Outside the Text

跳出文本

One important idea to understand when you read isthat every text has a context. Remember that every writer is in conversation:with other writers, with history, with the forces of her culture, with theevents of his time. It is helpful, for example, to read Karl Marx or SigmundFreud with some knowledge of their moment in history. Virginia Woolf and SimonedeBeauvoir were responding to writers and events in their cultures, too. Whenyou understand the context of a work, you can better see the forces that movedthe author to write that work. You will gain clarity about what and why thewriter was writing. You may even gain clarity about what you yourself wouldlike to say.

有一个重点要知道,当你阅读的时候,每篇文章都有一个语境。请记得每个作者都是在进行对话,和其他作者,历史,她的文化,还有和时事的对话。在阅读马克思或弗洛伊德的文章时,如果你了解了一些他们当时的历史事件,这是很有帮助的。弗吉尼亚·沃尔芙和西蒙娜·德·波伏瓦都是对她们当时的作者和文化事件进行评论。当你了解了一部作品的背景时,你就能更好地看出是什么促使和激励着作者写出这个作品。你会很清楚作者写了什么,为什么这样写。你也会知道自己想要说什么。

But how do you place a work in context if you knownothing about the historical time in which it was written? You might take atrip to the library or do some on-line research. Perhaps your professor hasreserved some books on the subject. Maybe she has discussed the context of aparticular book in class.

但如果你对于作品所写的那个历史年代不清楚的话,你怎么知道这个作品是处于什么背景呢?你可以去图书馆或者到网上做些调查。也许教授会保存关于这个话题的书,也有可能她已经在课上讨论过这本书的背景。

Even if you know nothing about thecontext of a particular book or writer, you know a lot about the context of aparticular reader: you. You are a member of a complex culture thatprovides you with a particular context for your reading experience. Yourgender, race, and socio-economic class provide context(s) for yourunderstanding of a text. You bring your own context(s) with you when you readtexts as diverse as the Declaration of Independence, the Koran, thefilms of Fellini, and the transcriptions of the Watergate tapes.

即使你对于书或这个作者的背景一无所知,你了解很多关于读者-你的背景。你是丰富多样的文化中的一员,你也的阅读经历带着自己的背景。你的性别,种族和社会经济等级也让你在了解一篇文章时有自己的语境。你带着你的语境阅读多样的内容像独立宣言, 可兰经,费里尼的电影,和水门事件。

 

ReadingDifferently in the Disciplines

不同的学科不同的阅读方式

Each of the different academicdisciplines - English, History, Sociology, Psychology, Biology, and so on -asks you to read differently. Sometimes, in fact, they ask you to"read" things that you wouldn't normally consider as"text." For example, in a Sociology class, you might be asked to"read" the behaviors of a particular group of people. In a Historyclass, you might be asked to "read" a sequence of events. In aGeography class, you might be asked to "read" a certain space. Youmight, in the course of your college career, be asked to "read" apainting, a film, an advertisement, an event, a laboratory experiment, or anynumber of fascinating things.

英语,历史,社会学,心理学,生物等等,每个不同的学术学科都要求你有不同的阅读方式。事实上,有时候他们会要求你阅读一些你通常不觉得那是阅读内容的部分。比如,在社会学的课上,你可能会被要求阅读一个特定人群的行为举止。在历史课上,你要阅读一系列事件结果。在地理课上,你要阅读一个地点。在大学生涯的课程里,你可能被要求阅读一幅画,一部电影,一个广告,一个事件,一个实验或者其他吸引人的事物。

Before you take on the task of readingany sort of text, you'll want to make sure that you understand the practices ofthe discipline and the requirements of the assignment. Are you being asked toobserve? To argue? To compare? Is there some requirement that you order yourobservations temporally? Spatially? Logically? What are the conventions forreading, writing, and thinking in this particular discipline?

For more information on writing in thedifferent disciplines, see: Writing in the Humanities, Writing in the SocialSciences, or Writing in the Sciences.

在你开始阅读任务之前,你要确认你已经明白了这个学科的惯例和作业的要求。你是应该去做观察?去争论?去比较?作业要求你怎么样罗列观察结果?要按照时间顺序?空间顺序?还是逻辑顺序?这个学科对于阅读,写作和思考方面有什么惯例吗?

如果你想知道更多关于不同学科的写作的信息,请看<人文学科写作><社会科学写作><科学写作>

 

Resources forImproving Reading

提高阅读的资源

Some students have other, more generalproblems with reading. Perhaps they read too slowly, or they have a problemwith retention. If you feel that you are one of these students, or if yousimply want to learn strategies for reading more effectively, contact theAcademic Skills Center for information about their workshops and otherresources.

有的学生有其他更普遍的阅读问题。可能他们读得太慢,或者他们记忆力不够好。如果你感觉自己也有这样的问题,或者你只是想学习提高阅读效率的方法,请联系学术技巧中心查询他们的研讨会和其他信息。

 



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